Employment Law Podcast Series
Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment at Matheson, discusses the latest developments in Irish employment law. The podcasts are a key resource in keeping up to date for HR practitioners, employment lawyers and international employers with employees in Ireland. You can download the podcasts from the Matheson Soundcloud or iTunes pages.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment, takes you through a recent whistleblowing penalisation claim. The existing protected disclosures framework was significantly enhanced by the recent enactment of the Protected Disclosures (Amendment) Act 2022 which came into effect on 1 January this year. This case, although heard under the previous legislation, illustrates how extensive the protection is for whistleblowers against acts constituting penalisation. Given the broader definition of penalisation under the 2022 Act, employers should take particular note of this case!
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, we share with you a recording of our recent webinar "Individual Accountability Framework: What actions must employers take now?". Moderated by employment partner Geraldine Carr, our specialist panel comprised of Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment, Niamh Mulholland, partner, Financial Institutions Group, Susan Doris-Obando, senior associate, Employment and Majella Walsh, Head of Compliance, Europe at Scotiabank. The panel provided practical guidance for in-scope firms on the requisite actions and steps to be taken from an employment / HR perspective to ensure compliance with the obligations imposed.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, we share with you a recording of our recent Knowledge Insights series webinar "Employment Law 2023 - The Year Ahead". Key legal developments and themes explored included the new recently enacted Transparent and Predictable Working Conditions Regulations 2022, the current status of the legislation introducing new rights in respect of requesting remote and flexible working arrangements and additional statutory leave periods. In addition, we focussed on new legislative developments which continue to promote diversity, equity and inclusion in the workplace including an overview of the proposed EU Pay Transparency Directive which is coming down the tracks as well as an overview of the actions employers should take now to narrow any Gender Pay Gap identified. Lastly, we looked at the new obligations on employers in managing whistleblowing complaints under the Protected Disclosure (Amendment) Act 2022.
In this episode Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment, takes you through some of the most recent employment law developments in Irish law, covering current trends on preparing for the gender pay gap reporting, the pending changes to the protective disclosures legislation, the new statutory sick pay legislation and progress on the right to request remote working legislation. Bryan also looks at a recent decision from the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC), Flynn V Iarnród Éireann, involving an unfair dismissal claim by an employee after he was given a four year prison sentence.
In this episode employment partners Geraldine Carr and Ailbhe Dennehy, and senior associate John Casey, discussed how employers can best prepare and comply with these new mandatory reporting obligations. Discussions included an overview of the core
legal requirements, how to categorise "pay elements" for reporting purposes, an analysis of the latest guidance on the trickiest areas arising in practice; and identifying measures that employers can put in place narrow any gap identified.
The long awaited Irish gender pay gap regulations were eventually published at the end of May. In this latest podcast Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment at Matheson provides you with a recap on the legislation and goes through some of the most frequent clients' questions and answers on the new regulations and what the key issues are already.
This podcast discusses the long anticipated mandatory gender pay gap reporting obligations which are expected to become a reality for Irish employers in June 2022. In advance of this, and as clients get preparations underway, Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment at Matheson, shares this 2019 podcast recording that outlines the key concepts involved, and what practical steps employers should already be doing now to get ready for their selected June date. While there have been obvious developments since recording this podcast, the key insights and recommendations are still relevant and quite timely.
This podcast discusses the key employment law and HR themes for 2022. Matheson Partners including Bryan Dunne, Russell Rochford and Ailbhe Dennehy along with Senior Associates Ruth Keehan, Ellen Nolan and Tina O'Sullivan share their insights into what businesses can expect to be a priority this year. Discussions included shining a spotlight on the Government’s Remote Working Strategy, the 2021 Code of Practice on the Right to Disconnect, gender pay gap reporting, COVID-19 risks and implications and upcoming changes expected in the whistleblowing legislation this year.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, we will share with you a recording of our recent client webinar on The Right to Disconnect in Ireland. The panel provided insights into what the published Code of Practice on the Right to Disconnect will mean in practice for businesses. They discussed best practice guidance for a Right to Disconnect Policy, the cultural and operational challenges that the Code gives rise to for domestic and international employers and the practical steps that employers can take to comply with the Code.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, the Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group will share with you a recording on the Key Employment Themes and Predictions for the Year Ahead. This includes Brexit related issues, the Government’s Remote Working Strategy, the growing support for a right to disconnect, and the new Code of Practice on Bullying and how employers are approaching vaccinations.
In this episode, we will share with you a recording on Managing Redundancies in a Remote Environment. Employment partner Geraldine Carr, senior associate Eimear Boyle and associate Denise Moran considered the legal and procedural obligations on employers in running both individual and collective redundancies remotely and how employers are now managing the practical issues in the current environment.
In this episode, we will share with you a recording of our recent client webinar on Brexit and HR issues. Employment partners, Bryan Dunne, Deirdre Crowley and Russell Rochford were joined by Kevin Duffy, former Chairman of the Labour Court and Tom Hayes, Executive Director of the Brussels European Employee Relations Group (BEERG) and Director of European Union Affairs of the HR Policy Association, Washington DC.
The panellists focused on matters such as the implications for multi-national employers currently operating European Works Councils under UK law of Brexit and the growing trend amongst UK based EWCs to convert to Irish law, as well as some of the practical issues involved in running an EWC under Irish law.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Head of the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group, Bryan Dunne will share with you a recording of our recent client webinar which is part of a series on COVID-19 HR issues.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Head of the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group, Bryan Dunne will share with you a recording of a recent webinar we ran for clients, as part of a series on Covid-19 HR issues.
In this episode the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group share their insights into the common pitfall that they see employers running into in implementing redundancies and other cost-cutting measures.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, the six Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group partners discuss what they see as the key themes and issues for Irish employers into 2020. This includes mandatory retirement ages in light of the RTE decision and now that it has become an election issue, the Central Bank of Ireland SEAR proposals for regulated financial services firms, the anticipated Nano Nagle Labour Court decision on reasonable accommodation, and pensions auto-enrolment.
In our latest podcast Bryan Dunne, Head of Employment at Matheson, discusses the Supreme Court judgment in the Daly and Nano Nagle case. This deals with the question of just how far an employer is required to go in providing reasonable accommodation to an employee with a disability in the workplace.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series Partner and Head of Employment, Bryan Dunne, together with other specialists in the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group look at the key employment, corporate immigration and pensions and benefits issues that clients have been focusing on in their Brexit planning and need to be aware of.
This includes the ongoing status of the common travel area between Ireland and the UK, converting UK law governed European Works Councils to Irish law and dealing with contracts in place with UK service providers for Irish pension arrangements.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Head of the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group, Bryan Dunne reviews a UK Court of Appeal decision in which a well-known UK retailer was held liable for the unlawful disclosure of just under 100,000 employees’ personal details by a fellow employee in an attempt to cause malicious damage to his employer. The podcast looks at the basis on which the Court reached this conclusion, in circumstances where the employer had clearly not authorised access to or use of employee data for such purposes and had taken reasonable precautions to prevent it being unlawfully disclosed.
The review also looks at some issues of increasing concern for clients operating in Ireland as Brexit gets closer, in particular around the Common Travel Area. Since this recording, we have clarified that the continuation of the CTA will not require amending legislation. However, there is a concern that post-Brexit, the issue of the 50 / 50 rule, outlined in the Employment Permits Act, whereby the Department of Business, Enterprise and Innovation will not issue or renew an employment permit where the employer has less than 50% of its employees of EEA/Swiss nationality, will operate to exclude British nationals. We will be covering the various corporate immigration, pensions and benefits and other employment law issues that Brexit throws up in our next podcast due to be released in mid April.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne is joined by four other partners from the Employment, Pensions and Benefits Law Group to talk about what they expect to be the five key themes in Irish employment and pensions law in 2019. This ranges from the gender pay gap legislation, preparing for the Central Bank of Ireland’s senior manager regime, to auto enrolment in pensions, GDPR in HR and finally dealing with the new legislation on banded hours and zero hours contracts.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne discusses the Irish Supreme Court upholding an earlier Court of Appeal decision from 2018, confirming in very clear terms that legal representation should only be permitted at an internal disciplinary hearing in exceptional circumstances. This case is a critical development in Irish employment law and a very positive outcome for employers as it overturned the controversial Lyons decision from 2017, which had suggested that employees should be entitled to legal representation at all internal disciplinary hearings. You can also read a separate article on this decision by Matheson employment partner Russell Rochford and associate Yvonne Bouton.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne reviews a recent decision from the Irish Workplace Relations Commission in a race discrimination claim brought under the Employment Equality Acts. This particular case is a very strong example of how an employer can successfully defend a discrimination claim and it will show that an employer doesn’t necessarily have to go to significant lengths to succeed in this type of defence.
In this episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne considers three recent decisions of the Irish Labour Court under the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, 2015, the legislation which protects employees where their employer refuses to recognise their trade union. We consider what these decisions mean for you as employers and ask whether this legislation, and the threat of a trade union seeking an order for improved terms from the Labour Court, is still something employers need to be concerned about? This episode also includes an update on draft legislation relating to gender pay gap reporting and increased parental leave.
In this episode, Bryan Dunne talks with Geraldine Carr, a senior associate in the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group about her six-month secondment in the Matheson Californian offices. Geraldine discusses some of the key trends coming up in US workplaces which we can expect to see finding their way into Irish workplaces very soon and also some of the main issues that US employers struggle with when it comes to dealing with Irish employment law. Bryan also considers a case previously reviewed in Spring 2017 on the question of when notice of termination of employment takes effect, whether it is when issued, when received or when read. This question has now recently been decided by the UK Supreme Court, hopefully once and for all.
In this special episode, we take a detailed look at the HR aspects of GDPR and what employers should already be doing to prepare for the new GDPR regime. This episode is a recording of a recent panel discussion held for clients between Niall Pelly and Russell Rochford, partners in the Matheson Employment, Pensions and Benefits Group and Anne-Marie Bohan, a leading data protection specialist and head of the Matheson Technology and Innovation Group. If you are interested in further practical advice on preparing for GDPR, you can also review our Countdown to GDPR series in which we will be giving further guidance on dealing with some of these issues in practice as we approach 25 May next.
Bryan Dunne covers a recent decision of the Irish Court of Appeal, Nano Nagle and Marie Daly. This case dealt with the very practical question of just how far an employer is required to go to provide reasonable accommodation to an employee with a disability in the workplace and at what point an employer can lawfully conclude that an employee’s disability is such that they are no longer capable of performing the role that they have been hired for.
In this special episode, Matheson employment partners Bryan Dunne and Russell Rochford look at the areas that they predict will be the most active for employment lawyers and HR directors in 2018. This ranges from GDPR and the impact that this will have on dealing with data access requests in particular to the proposed gender pay gap legislation, which has now been given priority in the Government’s most recent legislative schedule. Russell and Bryan also look at predictions and growing trends in relation to increased trade union activity against non-union employers and the impact that expected legislation on mandatory retirement ages will have in the work place, amongst other key themes.
Bryan Dunne discusses two separate issues in this podcast. The first is the recent decision of an Irish adjudication officer which dealt with the question as to whether an employer is allowed to refuse to pay paternity leave when at the same time paying generous maternity leave. The second issue is the recently enacted Mediation Act 2017 and the issues and opportunities that it presents for employers under Irish law.
Bryan Dunne leads a panel discussion with Tom Mallon BL, Cathy O'Grady, International Senior HR Director at Groupon, Desmond Ryan BL and Niall Pelly, Matheson Partner on Lyons v Longford and Westmeath Education and Training Board. This was a decision that held that an employee was entitled to full fair procedures at an internal disciplinary investigation, including the right to cross examine witnesses and to legal representation.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent decision of the Irish Labour Court, a decision that was handed down at the end of July just past and this is the case of DHL and Michael Coughlan. This case deals with an issue that comes up quite frequently in practice and that’s the question as to whether an employer can take into account previous disciplinary warnings that have expired in a subsequent disciplinary hearing, if the conduct relates to a similar type of offence.
Bryan Dunne revisits the High Court's decision in Lyons v Longford Westmeath Education and Training Board, a decision that has been extremely controversial over the past number of weeks for both employment lawyers and HR directors. This is because, in that case, Judge Eagar in the High Court seemed to suggest that an employee is entitled to the full range of fair procedures at the disciplinary investigation stage, including the right to cross-examine witnesses and the right to be legally represented.
Since that decision was issued on 7 May last, two new decisions of the High Court have issued from Judge McDermott in the last six weeks and both of those decisions, depending on how you interpret the Lyons decision, appear to contradict the key point. They both deal with the same question as to the extent to which an employee is entitled to fair procedures at the preliminary investigation stage. However, they both conclude that this right is confined to the formal disciplinary hearing stage; the point at which a decision is made in relation to the disciplinary matter.
In this latest episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan discusses a decision of the High Court from May of this year, which held that employees are entitled to both the right to cross-examine witnesses and the right to legal representation at the preliminary investigation stage of a disciplinary process. Based on earlier case law on the issue of fair procedures, as also identified in this case, this may not be seen as such a striking legal development, if at the stage in the disciplinary process where the employer is deciding whether the allegations are proven and if so, what sanction should be applied. However, in terms of actual HR and employment law current practice, it is a very significant development to extend this degree of fair procedures to the preliminary investigation stage, if the investigation is no more than a fact gathering exercise to decide if the matter should go to a disciplinary hearing. This would require the majority of employers to adapt their practices to allow for both cross-examination and legal representation at investigation meetings, as well as potentially other aspects of fair procedures also.
Bryan also discusses updates on mandatory retirement ages and the positive impact for employers in the Supreme Court decision on what constitutes bullying in Ruffley v Board of Management of St Anne’s School.
In the latest episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne is joined by Anne-Marie Bohan, a Partner in the Matheson Data Protection Practice Group, to discuss the implications for employers and Irish employment law of the new General Data Protection Regulation. With just under one year to go until implementation of the Regulation, Bryan and Anne-Marie discuss the steps employers should be taking now to prepare for this.
In the latest episode of the Matheson Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan Dunne takes a detailed look at a recent decision of the UK Court of Appeal from March 2017. This decision dealt with the question of the point at which notice of termination becomes effective. Bryan also highlights two other important employment law developments, firstly a proposal to significantly limit or abolish mandatory retirement ages and secondly the recent decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union upholding an employer’s right to prohibit employees wearing religious symbolism in the workplace.
Bryan Dunne looks at a recent decision of the UK Court of Appeal which finally settles the question of whether or not an employee can be dismissed for gross misconduct simply by reason of an error, as opposed to dishonesty or wilful wrongdoing. Bryan also highlights two important legislative updates: the recently published Mediation Bill and the Pensions Amendment Bill 2017. Finally, Bryan reviews another weird and wonderful case from around the world, this time a home grown case from the Employment Appeals Tribunal Division in Galway.
Bryan and Niall Pelly look at their predictions for the top five employment law trends for 2017. These five trends include: continued changes to how employers apply suspension and run suspension meetings post Reilly v BOI; a substantial increase in the level of whistleblowing claims; a further rise in the level of trade union activity and number of recognition campaigns in the private sector; a continued rise in the number of dismissals leading to High Court injunction proceedings; and broader use of no fault terminations to manage the risk of employment injunctions. The review also considers some observations on running hearings before the Workplace Relations Commission and workplace audits from the Commission's inspectors.
Bryan reviews a recent decision of the Irish Labour Court. This case is the first to consider a penalisation claim under the Protected Disclosure Act 2014, the Irish statutory whistleblower code. Bryan also takes a look at a separate case decided recently by Cork Circuit Court, in which an employee obtained the second statutory injunction issued under the legislation to date to prevent her employer for dismissing her for making a protected disclosure. These two cases, together with the case reviewed in episode 20 below, which also dealt with a statutory injunction for a whistleblower, indicate that the age of whistleblowing claims has well and truly arrived.
Bryan reviews the first successful application under the Irish whistleblowing legislation for an interim relief order. This is essentially an order to stop an employer from implementing a dismissal where it is alleged the dismissal is connected to the protected disclosure. This is the first time a Court has actually granted such an order, so it is a very significant development in the development of this legislation. It is expected that following the media attention around this order, highlighting just how effective they can be in severance negotiations, that there will be a change in employees’ attitudes to the use of this legislation. Since this recording, in recent days the first penalisation decision under this legislation has also now been handed down, which will be covered in the next podcast.
Episode 19 - What happens when an employer refuses to engage in collective bargaining? A review of the Labour Court’s first recommendation under the revised Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, 2015.
Bryan reviews the Labour Court’s first recommendation under the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, 2015. This is a very significant development for non-union employers under legislation designed to encourage trade union recognition and collective bargaining. It seeks to achieve this by allowing the Labour Court to set an employer’s pay and benefit rates directly with the union where the employer does not engage in collective bargaining, and subject to certain other pre-conditions being met.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent decision of the UK Supreme Court which deals with the issue of vicarious liability, the legal principle under which an employer can be held responsible for the unauthorised acts of its employees. In this case, the employer was held responsible for an extreme act of unprovoked violence by a petrol pump attendant against a customer. This case illustrates just how far reaching this principle can be. The review also considers the recent expert report into the Clerys Department Store closure and some significant changes it has recommended to the Irish collective redundancy legislation to prevent similar scenarios.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent decision of the Irish High Court which dealt with the thorny question of when a discretionary bonus is not actually discretionary after all. In this case, as it turned out, the employer was not as free as it thought to hold back staff bonuses.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent decision of the Irish High Court which illustrates the risks to an employer when a preliminary investigation goes too far. The key issue for employers, as highlighted in this case, is the risk of triggering a much higher standard of fair procedures and due process in a preliminary investigation. This can occur where the investigator seeks to reach conclusions of fact at the preliminary investigation stage, rather than simply deciding whether there is a sufficient basis on the facts as alleged or evidence gathered to warrant the matter being put to a disciplinary hearing. The practical difficulty that arises where this occurs is that the employer may not have allowed the degree of fair procedures that the type of conclusion ultimately reached requires, and at that point it is too late to adapt to this.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent decision of the Irish Court of Appeal that overturned an earlier 2014 High Court decision, which awarded a special needs assistant over a quarter of a million Euro. The issue before the Court of Appeal was whether the actions of the employer actually amounted to bullying and if they did, whether there was a sufficient causal link between the bullying and the psychiatric injury suffered. The decision is definitely a welcome outcome for employers in that it establishes a higher standard for plaintiffs to meet in bullying and harassment claims.
Bryan Dunne discusses a recent Employment Appeals Tribunal (“EAT”) ruling regarding an employee on long term absence. The EAT’s ruling gives some interesting insight into how the Irish courts might expect employers to manage an employee’s return to work and is also a rare example of an employer exercising a strategy of admitting the dismissal was unfair at the outset in order to limit the case to an assessment of loss of earnings only. The discussion considers when this might be an effective strategy and the risks to be considered in using it.
Episode 13 - What is the role of HR in a disciplinary process?
Bryan Dunne reviews the ruling in the recent Ramphal v Department of Transport case in episode 13 in our Employment Law Podcast series. This case from the UK called into question the role of the Human Resources department in providing support and guidance to a decision maker in a disciplinary process. The ruling has implications for HR teams across the board as they are inevitably called upon to provide their expertise in disciplinary matters and advises that the conclusions in a disciplinary process should be reached independently by the appointed decision maker.
In episode 12 of our Employment Law Podcast Series, Bryan reviews the recent decision of the Irish High Court in Reilly v Bank of Ireland, in which an employee was reinstated to his position six years after he had actually been dismissed. This judgment turned on a number of points, though one of the key issues from an employer’s perspective is how it may now restrict an employer’s ability to suspend an employee pending a disciplinary investigation. These are issues already being raised by employees’ representatives since this decision came out, so HR professionals and employers need to be aware of the implications of this decision and how to deal with them.
In the latest episode in the Employment Law podcast series Bryan takes an in-depth look at the Workplace Relations Act, designed to fundamentally overhaul and streamline the existing employment law claim system. The podcast highlights some of the key positives, negatives and likely trends for large employers following on from these changes. Since this recording, it has now been confirmed that this legislation will commence on 1 October next.
In episode 10 of our Employment Law podcast series Bryan Dunne considers the extent to which Irish compromise agreements are actually enforceable against employees following two recent decisions from the courts on this issue.
In episode 9 of our Employment Law podcast series Bryan Dunne reviews a recent decision in which an employee's High Court claim for stress related personal injuries was dismissed on the basis that the employee had already issued proceedings before the Equality Tribunal on the same facts. He also examines another weird and wonderful case from around the world; this time he asks whether running from the immigration authorities could be considered performing duties in the course of your employment.
In this episode Bryan looks at a recent decision of the EAT in which the employer successfully defended a decision to dismiss a security guard following an incident with a customer. The decision gives some useful insights into the practicalities of running an internal investigation and hearing, and the extent to which the Tribunal accepts that not all investigations are perfect. He also considered a recent UK decision requiring employers to include overtime in calculating holiday pay and what this means for employers in Ireland. Finally, he takes a look at another weird and wonderful employment law case from around the world.
In this episode of the employment law podcast series, Bryan looks at a recent decision of the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) which held that it was excessive to dismiss an employee for accessing her manager’s email and printing off a number of emails without permission, and considers the issues involved in reaching this conclusion.
In this episode of the employment law podcast series, Bryan Dunne and Deirdre Cummins discuss the implications for employers and trustees of two recent Commercial Court decisions involving Irish pension schemes, namely the Element Six litigation (Greene & Ors v Coady & Ors) and the Omega Pharma case (Holloway & Others v Damianus BV & Others). The Omega Pharma judgment is currently under appeal.
In this episode Bryan takes an in-depth look at a recent High Court decision where an attempt to enforce a 24 month restrictive covenant period was made by an employer. He also covers a weird and wonderful case from Ireland and a brief overview of some recent developments in the employment law world.
In this podcast Bryan looks at recent developments in the world of employment law and examines two High Court cases. The first relates to a case where an employee was awarded over €250,000 in a bullying and harassment claim. This is one of the highest awards given by the High Court to date in an employment stress claim. The second case is an unusual one where the court upheld the right of the employer to dismiss the employee because he was not the ‘right-fit’ for the company. Finally, Bryan looks at some weird and wonderful employment law cases from around the world.
In this episode, Bryan discusses two recent High Court cases. The first case considers whether or not an employee should be allowed to cross examine witnesses at a disciplinary hearing. The second case is a classic case of bullying and harassment and again illustrates just how time consuming they can become for employers, but is a useful example of the High Court taking a very objective approach in dismissing the claim. Bryan also discusses other recent developments in the world of employment law.
In this episode, Bryan looks at three new cases. The first is a recent decision from the Supreme Court which emphasises the growing expectation on employers to intervene in workplace disputes before they escalate out of hand. The second case looks at the question of whether an employer has to allow an employee bring external representation to internal meetings. The third is a useful constructive dismissal case, highlighting what not to do in an employment investigation.
Bryan looks at two recent employment law cases. The first concerns an Employment Appeals Tribunal decision which found that a reduction in pay is not the same as a deduction from pay and so not subject to the same restrictions. The second case deals with a successful defence of a constructive dismissals claim, which provides a useful insight into how the tribunal expects employers to deal with employee grievances if they are to win such cases. Bryan will take you through the cases, detailing the evidence sought by the tribunal.
Disclaimer: These podcasts present an overview of the cases and law and do not constitute legal advice. How the law will apply in any particular case will depend on the individual circumstances. Listeners should seek legal advice if any of the matters discussed are relevant to them.